After reinstalling Windows 8.1 Pro, I could not connect to www.google.com without an error/warning message about the certificate not being trusted. I then realized that I would get that message with any site that presented a certificate. I checked the trusted root certification authority store, and verified the root certificates were there. I checked the system's time zone settings. I cleared the Internet Explorer cache and reset all settings. None of these steps worked.
Resolution: In order to resolve this issue, I ran the following commands from:
dism.exe /online /cleanup-image /restorehealth
I also downloaded/installed all the Windows Updates. Now I am able to browse the Internet without this annoying issue popping up.